Dark Energy Simplified 1.1.1

1. Wolfram Mathworld defines a projection in this way:

“A projection is the transformation of points and lines in one plane onto another plane by connecting corresponding points on the two planes with parallel lines. This can be visualized as shining a (point) light source (located at infinity) through a translucent sheet of paper and making an image of whatever is drawn on it on a second sheet of paper.”

2. But a “(point) light source” is the same thing as a zero-dimensional light source, which involves the infinite concentration and the zero diffusion of light.

3. The problem with the Wolfram Mathworld definition of projection, and with every physical theory that relies on zero-dimensional point-sources, is that these involve an infinite concentration and a zero diffusion of light, when in our world light is always finitely concentrated and diffused – the universe arises from an infinite concentration of light, but it is itself finite.

4. The solution is that the universe is a (holographic) projection arising from combinations of artificial atomic point sources such that the gaps between the natural and artificial sources correspond to angles and positions of the planes that allow for light to arise from a finite concentration and to undergo non-zero diffusion.

5. In Einstein’s train thought-experiment, a light source located in the center of a carriage, and an inconsistency between the perception of an observer inside and an observer outside the train.

6. From the point of view of an observer inside the train, light emitted from the center of the carriage reaches the front and the rear of the carriage simultaneously, but that from the point of view of an observer outside the train, the light reaches the front of the carriage first.

7. It follows that at least one of the following principles is false:

1. units of space and time are the same for all observers regardless of their states of motion
2. the fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers in inertial frames of reference
2. light is propagated at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the emitting body

8. Given that 2 and 3 are true, it follows that 1 is false. It follows also that observers traveling at different velocities literally inhabit different spatio-temporal environments, different spaces and times. This is what leads to the famous twin-paradox, and all of the weirdness of Special Relativity.

9. In order to make sense of the concept of projection -and to avoid a circumstance in which there is our experience an infinite concentration and a zero diffusion of light- it is necessary to work with artificial point sources. These are all tied to a solitary natural point sourc, from whose perspective light is infinitely concentrated.

10. It follows that while it is possible to regard light as in motion against a background of space or vice versa in environments in which there is a balance of concentrated and diffused light, light is -absolutely speaking- at rest, and acquires the well-founded illusion of having a speed from the absolute motion of space.

11. We must therefore revise the Theory of Relativity in terms of the principle that -absolutely speaking- it is light that is at rest, and it is space that expands equally in all directions at the minimum speed of c. The idea that light in a vacuum is propagated in straight lines at the velocity c is replaced by the idea that a vacuum expands in straight lines at the velocity c.

12. Rather than

1. light is propagated at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the emitting body

we have

1b: space expands at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the body in space

13. The principles which emerged originally from the Special Theory of Relativity are these:

1. the fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers in inertial frames of reference
2. light propagates at the velocity c regardless of the of the state of motion of the emitting body
3. therefore units of space and time differ from observer to observer

14. But since light is absolutely at rest, these principles are misleading, and the correct way to express them is this:

1. the fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers in inertial frames of reference
2. space expands at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the body in space
3. therefore units of space and time differ from observer to observer

14. But we know both from theory and from observation that, while the expansion of mathematical and physical space may be regarded as locally uniform, this expansion is accelerating from a global point of view, and so we can revise 2 in this way:

space expands locally at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the body in space, but there is a global expansion which is greater than c and which is accelerating (meaning that the speed of light is effectively decelerating)…

14. This gives us the arrows of time. Well known are the thermodynamic arrow arising from the loss of heat, the cosmological arrow arising from the expansion of the universe, the radiative arrow arising from the expansion of waves outwards from their source, the causal arrow arising form the fact that effects follows causes rather than precede them, the quantum arrow arising from the collapse of the wave-function, and the psychological arrow of consciousness arising the fact that we remember the past and the future is unknown…

15. But the arrow that contains and explains all the others is the arithmetic arrow: if we play a film depicting the the un-breaking of an egg or the increase of the density of the prime numbers in the number line, we see something that looks absurd, and Feynman had no better explanation for this impression of absurdity in the first case other than ‘the accidents of life,’ But the impression of absurdity attached to the loss of density of the prime numbers as we count down the line isn’t an ‘accident’ at all – it is mathematically necessary that the repetition of a unit be accompanied by a global decrease in prime-density.

16. Correspondingly, it is mathematically necessary that -without intervention- everything in the universe follows the pathway leading from light into darkness.