1. The Tanakh tells us that Kingdom of Israel was united under David and Solomon, but that after the death of Solomon, it split into two – “Judah” (the south) and “Israel” (the north).
2. These groups followed geographically and genetically different pathways out of Israel.
3. The southern group includes Sephardi Jews and various Jews of Near Eastern descent, and the other larger and more diverse northern group includes peoples such as Ashkenazi Jews, along with other seemingly non-Jewish people whose memories of their Israelite roots have been lost over the centuries.
4. This division took place in about 722 BC, when the inhabitants of the northern kingdom were gradually removed by the Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser and Shalmaneser.
5. The northern Israelites were initially exiled to the “cities of Medes” -or according to the Septuagint texts- to the “Mountains of the Medes”, i.e. to the area of the Zagros Mountains, the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq, and South Eastern Turkey.
6. That there us a genetic divide as well as a geographic between Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, and a corresponding genetic link between Ahskenazi Jews and certain Non-Jewish populations, is shown by Bulher’s study of CCR5-delta32 (2003). This marker -which protects against AIDS, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis- was discovered in nearly 30 per cent of subjects from Iceland and it is common amongst Ashkenazi Jews, while rare amongst Sephardi Jews. It’s frequency proved to be 20% stronger in those whose grandparents came from Russia or Eastern Europe.
7. This divide/link is reflected by Behar’s discovery that the majority of Ashkenazi Levites belong to haplogroup R1a, common amongst Norwegians, Sorbs, and Belrusians (and Icelanders), but rare amongst Sephardi Levites and Sephardi Isrealites, who tend to belong to the Near Eastern haplogroups E, J, and T.
8. This divide/link coheres with the close match there is between biblical chronology and genetic chronology arising from the mathematics of curved mutation rates (where these are, not linear, but based on the loss of prime-density of a linear time-line and based on the formula where is the number of primes not greater than x, g is length of a generation, n the number of STR mutations, and m the sum of mutation rates).
The effect of this non-linear mathematical model is to a) telescope the traditional genetic time-line and to b) break this line up into co-existing sub-lines.
9. That this divide/link can be tracked back to Israel, is indicated by the relatively high concentrations of the rare European haplogroup Q there are amongst Ashkenazi Jews (5%), Norwegians (4%), and Scots living on the Shetland Islands (4 – 8%).
10. Q is rarely found amongst Sephardim or in Near Eastern Jewish populations, but very high percentages of Q are to be found in the Americas amongst Native Americans (92.3% in Navaho) and in the Altai region of Southwest Siberia (93.8% in Kets), a general area to where -if we turn back time- it seems likely that all of these populations converge.[supsystic-tables id=6]
11. K2 (T) is scattered amongst populations inclusive of Q and R1a carriers, and unlike them, it has some of its most significant concentrations in the Near East, especially in the Zagros Mountains area, and amongst those -including Jews- living in those parts to which the northern tribes of Israel were first exiled by the Assyrians, and dying off from there (the exception is the South African Jews, the Lemba, who by tradition are exiles of the Assyrian Captivity).
12. Thus we have the possibility that T’s close ancestor K is -unlike E or J – a specifically non-Judaic Israelite haplogroup, and the related possibility that Q and R1a are non-Judaic haplogroups that originated in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, but derived from the Near Eastern K.
13. In close accordance with this possibility, Behars’s 2003 study showed that the highest frequencies of T amongst the historically Judaic Sephardi Jews belonged to the Sephardi Levites (23%), and perhaps the highest concentration of T in any European population).
14. T is rare and widely scattered, but in spite of its Near Eastern origin, it is possible to distinguish two dominant subclades based on the absence or presence of L131. L131 is found amongst some Ashkenazi Jews, some Yemenite Jews, generally not amongst Sephardi or Near-Eastern Jews, and mainly amongst seemingly non-Jewish populations.
15. In accordance with this possibility, Mendez found high frequencies of T- L131 amongst the mysterious South African tribe known as the Lemba who according to long-held tradition originate, via Yemen, from a location to the north of Jericho.