Abstract One of the biggest problems with the thesis of those that say that say the Shroud of Turin (TS) is a medieval forgery is that no one has been able to replicate that image (let alone replicate the blood stains (real human blood (1) (2)) and the forensic properties of the TS). If the Shroud TS is a medieval art work, it should be an easy matter for someone in the 21st century to work out how it was forged and to replicate it (no mystery surrounds the methods used to produce any alleged forgery other than the TS.) Here we examine some of the best Shroud-replicas ever made, and with reference to the Special and General Theories of Relativity, offer reasons as why these replicas are as unconvincing as they are so obviously are.
Below we see a comparison between the real Shroud body-image (left) and an attempt to replicate it by Luigi Garlaschelli, a chemistry professor at the University of Pavia, Italy (3):
Garlaschelli’s attempt is reminiscent of an attempt to replicate the Shroud by skeptic and paranormal de-bunker Joe Nickell (4), and both Nickell amd Garlaschelli used the technique known as “bas-relief” (which involves placing a cloth over and pressing it against a statue). Nickell’s Shroud-face (5):
Garlaschelli’s Shroud-face compared with the real face:
Note the unsubtlety of the fake images, their comparative lack of detail, and their distortion. I think we can put a permanent end to the theory that the TS was produced by an artist using a bas-relief (and all theories according to which the TS is a work of art) by drawing attention to the fact that the TS contains more information than is usually seen. When even a little of this hidden information is displayed, it becomes obvious that the detail of the TS-image is far too great to have been produced by any method as crude as bas-relief or painting:
A method that is capable of producing a comparable degree detail to that contained on the TS is one employed by art historian Nicolas Allen (6):
Below we see a comparison between the real TS-image (left) and Allen’s attempt to replicate this image using a form of photography which -although it was never used until Allen used it in his replication- was theoretically available to a medieval forger:
The trouble now is, not the lack of detail and the distortion, but the unevenness -the directionality- of the light used to make the image. The TS-image is even, and there is no preferred direction to the elements of the image.
Aside from their inability to get real human blood corresponding to the wounds of Jesus of Nazareth, and to place this blood in exactly the right places without the benefit of a knowledge roman crucifixion methods or a body-image to guide the forger, two properties of the real TS that expose every the fakes are
- the detailed and undistorted nature of the original frontal and dorsal images -especially the dorsal image- regardless of their distance form the cloth and the orientation of the body and the cloth in space
- the random distribution of the degraded micro-fibers that produce these images, a distribution that implies that whatever form of energy it was that imposed itself upon the cloth to produce the image was distributed evenly.
The problem with these fake-TS images -distortion, or unevenness in the distribution of the light- is also a problem effecting the so called “cloth-collapse” theory. The first to advance this theory was physicist Joe Jackson, according to whom “the cloth collapsed through the underlying body, radiation emitted from all points within that body discolored the cloth so as to produce the observed image.” (7). The theory is appealing perhaps, but fairly easily disposed of by reference some typical criticisms leveled at the authenticity of the TS by deniers. For example, philosophy professor David Kyle Johnson, who writes a Psychology Today blog, observes that the hair of the man on the TS defies gravity (8):
It is parallel with the man’s body, as if he is standing, instead of falling to the back of the head as it would if was the body were lying flat…
He goes on to say that
Shroud enthusiasts – “shroudies,” as they like to be called – insist that the image on the shroud was produced by some kind of energy (like radiation) emitted by Jesus’s body as he rose. But the image on the shroud could not be produced by such an event. (A) Radiation can’t leave an image in cloth (false). (B) Even if it could, since radiation emits in all directions, at best it would just leave a blurry silhouette, not a clear cut face with features (false). (C) Even if it could produce a clear cut face with features, that face would be distorted. A cloth wrapped around someone’s head lays flat against their nose, eye sockets and ears. If someone’s face somehow ‘radiated’ and recorded an image on such a cloth, when flattened out the cloth would depict whole representations of each part – nose, eye socket, and ears – all pointing in the same direction (true, assuming the presence of gravity)…
Since the cloth in the cloth-collapse theories these isn’t flat with respect to the body that it wrapped, and since body is itself the light-source, it is inevitable that any image produced in the manner described by Jackson will -like the TS imitations above- involve loss of detail and distortion and/or signs that the light hit the cloth in an uneven manner.
A theory -arguably the only theory- that can account for the detailed and undistorted nature of the TS body-image and the randomness of the process that produced the degradation of the cellulose of the linen which in turn produced this image came in its earliest form from artist Isobel Piczeg (9), always the most deeply thoughtful and eagle-eyed of sindonologists, who observed:
- The lack of anatomical distortion of the naked Body projected on the Shroud.
- It is clearly visible on the Shroud Images, especially on the Dorsal Image, that the muscles of the Body are not crushed and flattened against the stone bench of the tomb.
- The Body is hovering between the upper and the lower sheet and there is NO TRACE OF GRAVITY.
- The lack of gravity is also further proven by the Shroud linen. The linen does not fall on top of the Body, but remains in its unnaturally stretched condition at some distance from the body.
She proposes that there is an “interface between the projection of the Frontal Image and the Dorsal Image” onto the TS and that this is interface is an “event horizon that blocks every communication between the two sides of the image.” Her ideas are vague-sounding, expressed with words rather than numbers, and as indicated by Isabel herself, they don’t really make sense in the light of the General Theory of Relativity, and/or The Standard Model of Particle Physics (“paradox” is her term ), But they can be found to make good sense by reference to flaws in the Special and General Theories of Relativity. The essence of SR can be most easily explained by reference to the famous train thought-experiment. The figure below depicts a train, and a light source located in the center of a carriage. It shows that from the point of view of an observer inside the train, light emitted from the center of the carriage reaches the front and the rear of the carriage simultaneously, but that from the point of view of an observer outside the train, the light reaches the front of the carriage first.
One of the following principles then must be false:
1. There is a perfectly isomorphic relationship between the time lines of observers regardless of their states of motion
2. The fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers (in uniform motion)
3. Light is propagated at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the emitting body
(2) and (3) are apparently true, meaning that (1) is false. According to SR then, observers traveling at different velocities literally inhabit different spatio-temporal environments, different times and spaces (10). In particular, space contracts and time slows in the direction of motion. But there is a subtlety here that has been completely overlooked, and that we can reveal by considering General Relativity, Einstein’s extension of SR to gravity. At root of GR is the idea that mass curves space-time (11), and the fact that this is a half-truth is suggested by the implication of local infinities (12), the lack of a coherent mathematical framework for both large scale and small scale objects (13), and by the flat rotation curves of distant galaxies. The last is the motivation for the idea of dark matter (14):
The idea of a space-time curved by mass readily takes us back to an initial condition of the universe such that all the mass of the universe is compressed to a point, and this same infinite compression of mass is, by the terms of the theory, also to found at the centers of black holes. But the singular nature of the initial condition of the universe represents the beginning of the time, while the singularities at the centers of black holes in some sense represent the end of time, and these forms of curvature should therefore be quite distinct. More particularly, it should not be the case that both are attributable to the infinite action of the force of gravity – this is the theory breaking down, and a sign of a false assumption. Yes, everyone can see that the singularity “preceding” the big bang is not the same as the singularities “inside” black holes, but there is missing mathematics, and whether we like it or not, GR paints a picture of the universe that begins and ends in an identical state (infinite gravity is infinite gravity) when, clearly, there is throughout the universe as we know it an arrow of time leading from an energetic contracted state to an exhausted expanded one. In so far as it so much as makes sense to speak of infinite gravity, these can’t both be the result of infinite gravity. If we give up this idea that curvature is due to mass (which is a combination of light and space), and employ instead the idea that curvature is due to imbalances of light and space (where the classical world is balanced, the atomic world is unbalanced in the direction of light, and black holes are unbalanced in the direction of space), we will find that we can solve this and other problems. Mathematically, we capture what it is to be balanced, and what it is to depart from balance, thereby producing curvature, by re-expressing the tradition equation for a circle of area 1 () as
Where the traditional equation fails by implying that an energy source located at the center of this area unit-circle is undiminished from center to circumference (it has either a zero or an infinite radius), the second provides us with a potentially infinite hierarchy of energy levels that are necessarily non-infinite and non-zero. Given that gamma is a spacial case of
for s = 1, we can go from to the more general
Let s be a positive integer greater than 1 and let
= the critical line/radius on the one side of which curvature in the direction of light is classical.
and on the other is non-classical
and we see something like this:
Let s be a positive real number less than 1, and let
= the critical line/radius on the one side of which curvature in the direction of space is classical
and on the other is non-classical
and we have the following model:
Since the initial condition of the universe is, in this model, massless -since it involves no space and time, and an infinite concentration of light- it follows that absolutely speaking light has no speed, and that the apparent speed of light is due to the expansion of space. Hence we have
1.* There is a perfectly isomorphic relationship between the time lines of observers regardless of their states of motion
2.* The fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers
3. * Space expands at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the body in space
Recalling that balanced classical regions of moderate curvature are governed by the equation , we can associate this concept of physical inertia to one of mathematical inertia and we can re-express 1.* – 3.* in this way:
1.** There is a perfectly isomorphic relationship between the number lines of observers regardless of their states of motion
2.** The fundamental laws of arithmetic are the same for all observers
3.** The prime-density of an arithmetic progression is governed by
If (2**) and (3**) are true, then we can preserve the symmetry of the laws of arithmetic and the balance of prime-density and sparsity only at the cost of the symmetry of the unit. We might say that everyone has a clock governing their lives that runs at a slightly speed to anyone else’s clock because the prime-based asymmetry between the underlying number lines. But the equation , and the balance of density and sparsity implied by and by the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (15), places a strict limit on the extent of the disagreement between one number line and another – between one clock and another- thereby preventing such things as the Twin Paradox and other strange consequences of SR. It follows from the switch from the usual space-centric perspective to the absolute light-centric perspective (the God’s Eye View rather than the Man’s Eye View) that inertia is to be defined as the speed of the uniform expansion of space -c- and any departure by an object from c requires the action of a force. From here we deduce Newton’s laws of motion (16):
- Every object persists in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
- Force is equal to the change in momentum (mV) per change in time. For a constant mass force = mass times acceleration.
- For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Gravity and all of the official forces of nature can be reduced to the thought that a force is the curvature of space-time resulting in the departure from c in the direction of the acceleration (an imbalance of space) or the de-acceleration of the expansion (an imbalance of light) of space. Since the expansion of space is accelerating as a function of time, “accelerating” up to c is the same thing as decelerating to the degree that the gap between the acceleration and the uniform speed of the expansion of space -c- is bridged and therefore decelerating to the degree that -locally speaking- acceleration is suspended and time ceases.
This picture shows that the resurrection took place, and the body-image was projected onto the TS by the radiation, at the split second the gap between the acceleration of the expansion of space and c was bridged by the de-accelerating body of Jesus of Nazareth, i.e. at the split second that gravity was suspended for that body and it entered the realm that we can call “eternity”. It also shows why it is that the TS has never been replicated and will never be replicated by man.
APPENDIX: SUMMARY OF THE PROCESS OF IMAGE FORMATION BY ISABEL PICZEC
There is the hermetic separation of the two Images with no overlap. The Frontal Image is projected upward and the Dorsal Image downward, clearly describing a Horizontal Interface in between.The Interface seems to have the power of making the Shroud straight and taut and definitely forced to be parallel with this mysterious entity. Due to this condition of the Shroud the Image of the Body on both sides is visibly perfect and undistorted anatomically. The cloth is staying at some distance from the Body and does not fall on it. Also clearly visible is that the muscles of the Body are not flattened against the stone bench of the tomb. The body is weightlessly hovering between the two sides of the sheet. The fact that the upper side of the sheet did not fall on the Body and that the muscles are not crushed and flattened against the stone bench of the tomb clearly proves the total absence of gravity.
All the above visible traces on the Shroud indicate that the new Entity, the mysterious Interface is significantly more than just an Interface. It has obviously great power of a special kind that indicates we are dealing with an Event Horizon. The lack of Gravity, however, introduces here a significant paradox. There is a great upsurge of energy with strong organizing power that would mean decreasing entropy. The immense energy released has the means to overpower Gravity while energizing the Event Horizon already in place. (here some new and different laws seem to present themselves that have to be studied).
The greatly divided Upper region and Lower region of the Isolated System of the Shroud each seems to have its own Event Horizon. Since energy has been added by entropy falling, the Event Horizons move closer and closer to each other, finally becoming one. Time collapses to Zero. Eventually they disappear, revealing the entity they were clothing so to speak, the Space-Time Singularity Big Bang style. Everything indicates that at the collapse of the Interface the Body is suddenly no longer in the tomb.
After time, due to the impulse of the time-like part of Singularity started to proceed in a new direction, it had to give forth the Image that was carried by the last time quanta and encoded, as we know, on the Event Horizon. It was the Image of the dead Body with a retrospective quality and recorded in two halves.
The space-like part of Singularity, as we have seen, explodes with everything all at once spreading its powerful Information Field. With its obvious assistance the Image recovered by time spreads itself on both sides of the cloth. The mechanism is extremely complex. The orthogonal projection is scarce. The oblique forms are transported in multi planes turning and turning, superposed and creating a Bas-relief effect with the mysterious Event Horizon as its impenetrable background. Another paradoxical quality of the Shroud is its semi-three-dimensional character, a two-dimensional encoded Image that can only translate itself in three dimensions, forever speaking about the presence of a real three-dimensional Body.
We have to remember also that the explosion of a singularity is an incredibly powerful event even in an Isolated System. One of these brought forth the Big bang. The tomb can contain and witness only the infinitesimal split duration of the explosion and action of the Singularity, hence the unknown and alien marks on the Shroud that no one could imitate.
Creation started out of a Singularity and its explosion. We call it the Big Bang. No matter how startling and how unbelievable it is, but this investigation led to a definite Singularity. The Second Creation has been started in the tomb and burst forth from there. The Shroud is an incredible Blueprint presented amidst the signs of a monumental sacrifice.
I close with the very fitting words of John Archibald Wheeler:
“Some day a door will open and expose the glittering central mechanism of the world in its beauty and simplicity”.
Who would have thought that this door will open through the Shroud of Turin!
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