Abstract With reference to the Special and General Theories of Relativity, we look here at some of the similarities and differences between the regeneration process undergone by Time Lords in the British TV series Dr Who and the resurrection process undergone by Jesus of Nazareth according to Christianity.
Wikipedia describes “regeneration” in this way:
In the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who, regeneration is a biological ability exhibited by the Time Lords, a race of fictional humanoids originating on the planet Gallifrey.
This process allows a Time Lord to undergo a transformation into a new physical form and a somewhat different personality after instances which would normally result in death.
Basically regeneration is a device that allows the character of the Doctor to be played by different actors, but the concept doesn’t really make sense since the regenerated form of a human body ought to possess the same physical characteristics as the original.
According to the gospels and to Christianity Jesus of Nazareth regenerated in a comparable way to a Time Lord after having been crucified by the Romans in the 1st century, and lying dead in Joseph of Arithathea’s tomb in the rock for 3 days, and from the biblical account, his body retained its original look. That he is not recognised on several occasions by his disciples and friends (John 20: 15, John 21: 4), and that he cautions Mary of Magdalene not to touch him because he has “not yet ascended” to his father (John 20: 17) might be taken to suggest that, like the regenerative process of the Time Lords, the regenerative process by means of which Jesus was restored involves stages. Later however he does allow Thomas and others to touch him, asserting that he is not a ghost, and seemingly establishing that he is flesh and blood (Luke 24: 39). Also he eats broiled fish (Luke 24: 42). But at this time he possesses the ability to materialise in rooms whose doors are locked (Luke 24: 36, John 20: 19, John 20: 26), an ability that was generally not on display in his pre-resurrection state (although there were hints of its existence on the occasions that he simply walked through a mob intent on killing him (Luke 4: 30) and walked on water (Mathew 14: 25). I say that something fundamental has changed, and that he has not -like a regenerated Time Lord- merely been restored to the way he was. He has come back in a special, high-energy form, in a form such that physical death would be impossible for him. But there is a still higher-energy form available to him, a form that is incompatible with the possession of a humanoid body in a terrestrial dimension. This latter form is the form referred to as “ascended”.
We can infer from the transfiguration on the Mount of Olives that one thing the fictional regeneration of the Doctor and the real life regeneration of Jesus of Nazareth have in common is the role of radiation in this process. Mathew 17: 1 – 3:
After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the light.
Mathew 17: 9:
As they were coming down the mountain, Jesus instructed them, “Don’t tell anyone what you have seen, until the Son of Man has been raised from the dead.”
There is no biblical account of the resurrection, because there was no human eye present in the tomb to see it (the photograph on the Turin Shroud provides the only possible record of what occurred), but the transfiguration story (coupled with the appearance of the ascended Jesus to Paul on the road to Damascus) are clues that in both the case of the regenerating Time Lord, and the case of the resurrecting Jesus, the body of the regenerating being gives off a greater than usual amount of radiation, something that is arguably shown by the image on the Shroud of Turin. Although dismissed by most as a medieval forgery on the back of the 1988 radiocarbon date (1), there are good reasons to believe that the Shroud is authentic, and that the image on the cloth was produced by a short and intense burst of high-frequency radiation. The image on the Shroud is a negative produced 600 years before the invention of photography; the man on the Shroud has apparently sustained the wounds associated with crucifixion (although not crucifixion as imagined by medieval artists since there is a puncture on his wrist rather than the palm); and beneath -not above- the body-image are blood stains whose bilirubin and creatinine and ferritin content all found in patients who suffer forceful multiple traumas like torture (2, 3). And this image has been produced by the oxidisation of only the top most fibrils of the cloth, which effectively rules out paint (4), any chemical process, or -realistically- any process other than one involving radiation emanating from the body (the most convincing Shroud-like discolourations heretofore have been produced by the irradiation of linen cloth with protons (5), and with ultra-violet light (6).
By appeal to related lines of argument, one arising from considerations surrounding the Special Theory of Relativity, the other from considerations surrounding the General Theory of Relativity, can say that this is because regeneration involves reversing the arrow of time, and reversing the arrow of time is an illuminating process… The essence of SR can be most easily explained by reference to the famous train thought-experiment. The figure below depicts a train, and a light source located in the center of a carriage. It shows that from the point of view of an observer inside the train, light emitted from the center of the carriage reaches the front and the rear of the carriage simultaneously, but that from the point of view of an observer outside the train, the light reaches the front of the carriage first.
One of the following principles then must be false:
1. There is a perfectly isomorphic relationship between the time lines of observers regardless of their states of motion
2. The fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers (in uniform motion)
3. Light is propagated at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the emitting body
(2) and (3) are apparently true, meaning that (1) is false. According to SR then, observers traveling at different velocities literally inhabit different spatio-temporal environments, different times and spaces (7, 8, 9). In particular, space contracts and time slows in the direction of motion, so that if one were to accelerate to a speed close to the speed of light, time would pass much less slowly than it would for someone travelling at a lessor speed. But there is a subtlety here that has been completely overlooked, and that we can reveal by considering General Relativity, Einstein’s extension of SR to gravity. At root of GR is the idea that mass curves space-time (9, 10), and the fact that this is a half-truth is suggested by the implication of local infinities (11), the lack of a coherent mathematical framework for both large scale and small scale objects (12), and by the flat rotation curves of distant galaxies. The last is the motivation for the idea of dark matter (13, 14):
The idea of a space-time curved by mass readily takes us back to an initial condition of the universe such that all the mass of the universe is compressed to a point, and this same infinite compression of mass is, by the terms of the theory, also to found at the centers of black holes. But the singular nature of the initial condition of the universe represents the beginning of the time, while the singularities at the centers of black holes in some sense represent the end of time, and these forms of curvature should therefore be quite distinct. More particularly, it should not be the case that both are attributable to the infinite action of the force of gravity – this is the theory breaking down, and a sign of a false assumption. Yes, everyone can see that the singularity “preceding” the big bang is not the same as the singularities “inside” black holes, but there is missing mathematics, and whether we like it or not, GR paints a picture of the universe that begins and ends in an identical state (infinite gravity is infinite gravity) when, clearly, there is throughout the universe as we know it an arrow of time leading from an energetic contracted state to an exhausted expanded one. In so far as it so much as makes sense to speak of infinite gravity, these can’t both be the result of infinite gravity. If we give up this idea that curvature is due to mass (which is a combination of light and space), and employ instead the idea that curvature is due to imbalances of light and space (where the classical world is balanced, the atomic world is unbalanced in the direction of light, and black holes are unbalanced in the direction of space), we will find that we can solve this and other problems. Mathematically, we capture what it is to be balanced, and what it is to depart from balance, thereby producing curvature, by re-expressing the tradition equation for a circle of area 1 () as
Where the traditional equation fails by implying that an energy source located at the center of this area unit-circle is undiminished from center to circumference (it has either a zero or an infinite radius), the second provides us with a potentially infinite hierarchy of energy levels that are necessarily non-infinite and non-zero. Given that gamma is a spacial case of
for s = 1, we can go from to the more general
Let s be a positive integer greater than 1 and let
= the critical line/radius on the one side of which curvature in the direction of light is classical.
and on the other is non-classical
and we see something like this:
Let s be a positive real number less than 1, and let
= the critical line/radius on the one side of which curvature in the direction of space is classical
and on the other is non-classical
and we have the following model:
Since the initial condition of the universe is, in this model, massless -since it involves no space and time, and an infinite concentration of light- it follows that absolutely speaking light has no speed, and that the apparent speed of light is due to the expansion of space. Hence we have
1.* There is a perfectly isomorphic relationship between the time lines of observers regardless of their states of motion
2.* The fundamental laws of physics are the same for all observers
3. * Space expands at the velocity c regardless of the state of motion of the body in space
Recalling that balanced classical regions of moderate curvature are governed by the equation , we can associate this concept of physical inertia to one of mathematical inertia and we can re-express 1.* – 3.* in this way:
1.** There is a perfectly isomorphic relationship between the number lines of observers regardless of their states of motion
2.** The fundamental laws of arithmetic are the same for all observers
3.** The prime-density of an arithmetic progression is governed by
If (2**) and (3**) are true, then we can preserve the symmetry of the laws of arithmetic and the balance of prime-density and sparsity only at the cost of the symmetry of the unit. We might say that everyone has a clock governing their lives that runs at a slightly speed to anyone else’s clock because the prime-based asymmetry between the underlying number lines. But the equation , and the balance of density and sparsity implied by and by the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (15, 16, 17), places a strict limit on the extent of the disagreement between one number line and another – between one clock and another- thereby preventing such things as the Twin Paradox and other strange consequences of SR. It follows from the switch from the usual space-centric perspective to the absolute light-centric perspective (the God’s Eye View rather than the Man’s Eye View) that inertia is to be defined as the speed of the uniform expansion of space -c- and any departure by an object from c requires the action of a force. From here we deduce the laws of motion (18):
(1) Every object persists in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
(2) Force is equal to the change in momentum (mV) per change in time. For a constant mass force = mass times acceleration.
(3) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Gravity and all of the official forces of nature can be reduced to the thought that a force is the curvature of space-time resulting in the departure from c in the direction of the acceleration (an imbalance of space) or the de-acceleration of the expansion (an imbalance of light) of space. Since the expansion of space is accelerating as a function of time, “accelerating” up to c is the same thing as decelerating to the degree that the gap between the acceleration and the uniform speed of the expansion of space -c- is bridged and therefore decelerating to the degree that -locally speaking- acceleration is suspended and time ceases.
The universe as we know it can be said to unfold as a superposition of shifts in this balance, an object radiates whenever there is a shift in the direction of light, and such shifts are in the reverse direction to the natural direction of time. Just such a shift took place during the transfiguration, and a dramatic form of this same shift was the mechanism behind the resurrection. A reason for Jesus telling Peter, John, and James to remain silent about the transfiguration until after the occurrence of the resurrection, then is that the first event only makes sense in the context of the second. And the appearance of the ascended Jesus to Paul on the road to Damascus only makes sense in the context of the transfiguration and the resurrection… There is a jigsaw puzzle here whose pieces can only be finally fitted together to form a complete picture with the benefit of the Shroud of Turin and mathematical-physics (depicted above) that the properties of this garment imply:
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(2) Adler, A (2000), Chemical and Physical Characteristics of the Blood Stains
(3) Carlino, E et al (2017), Atomic resolution studies detect new biologic evidences on the Turin Shroud
(4) Piczek, I (1993), Is the Shroud of Turin a Painting?
(5) Rinaudo, J (1999), Image formation on the Shroud of Turin explained by a protonic model affecting radiocarbon dating
(6) Di Lazzaro, P (2015), A Ray of Light on The Shroud
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(8) Einstein, A (1905), On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
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(10) O’Connor, J (1996), General relativity
(11) Wald, R (1997), Gravitational Collapse and Cosmic Censorship
(12) Wald, R (1984), General Relativity
(13) Rubin, V et al (1980), Rotational Properties of 21 Sc Galaxies with a Large Range of Luminosities and Radii from NGC 4605 (R = 4kpc) to UGC 2885 (R = 122kpc)
(14) de Swart, J. et al (2017), How dark matter came to matter
(15) Riemann, G (1859), Über die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse (On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude)
(16) Dirichlet, P (1837), Beweis des Satzes, dass jede unbegrenzte arithmetische Progression, deren erstes Glied und Differenz ganze Zahlen ohne gemeinschaftlichen Factor sind, unendlich viele Primzahlen enthält” (Proof of the theorem that every unbounded arithmetic progression, whose first term and common difference are integers without common factors, contains infinitely many prime numbers)
(17) Davenport, H (2000), Multiplicative number theory
(18) Newton, I (1687), The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy